2. Research process a. Quantitative method Process in quantitative method have linear character, it have clear step: formula of problem, theoretical, hypothesis, collecting data, data analysis, and make summary. Some method in quantitative method: survey method, ex post fact, experiment, evaluation, action research, etc.
Flow in quantitative method: Source of problem (empiric-theoretic) -> formula of problem -> relevant theory concept or relevant invention -> test of hypothesis -> prejudice to relation between variable -> compiling research instrument - method / strategy approach of research -> collecting and analyzing data -> summary
b. Qualitative method Divide in some steps: 1.Description step In this step, researcher describes what he look, hear, and feel. Researcher know less to obtained information from data. Data quite a lot, varying and not yet lapped over clearly. 2.Reduction step In this step, researcher reduces all information in previous step. Researcher only focus in certain problem. Researcher choose problem from data which interesting data, important, useful and new information. Only chosen data will be used. 3. Selection step In this step, researches analyses data deeper than previous step to obtain new information. So that researcher can be find themes by construct data become hypothesis.
End result in qualitative method not only get information which can not find in quantitative method but also get new information and meaningful information, and also create new hypothesis to solve problem.
Different research process in quantitative method and qualitative method -. Quantitative method have deductive, start from theoretical frame work, focus on formal theory, middle range theory, substantive theory, and then formulate it in hypothesis, hypothesis test, and get empirical social reality. -. Qualitative method have inductive, start from observe in empirical social reality, then develop it in substantive theory, middle range theory, formal theory, and then result became theoretical frame work.
*. Formal theory is developed for board conceptual area in general theory *. Substantive theory is developed for specific area of social concern *. Middle range theory can be formal or substantive, middle range theory are slightly more abstract the empirical generalization or specific hypotheses.